Health risks need to be informed before travel, because ignorance is often the main cause of unintentional exposure to infection, illness and injury while traveling.It has long been known saying that the world is a global village. In truth, more people are traveling more. Some because of work commitments, others because they want to travel. By train, boat, plane, car, something rarely a motorcycle, bicycle or on foot, on vacation want to discover exotic distant ends. However, due to an increase in the number of trips, especially in health risk ends recent years developed a new branch of medicine called tropical and travel medicine. Its tasks are to protect the health and risk prevention of infections and diseases of the passengers in different parts of the world, but also reduce health risks during and after the trip.
Why is travel medicine important?
Many exotic and attractive tourist countries today are struggling with a supply of clean drinking water, but also the prevention of infectious diseases, which Croatia has already forgotten. Such diseases are malaria, cholera, typhoid fever and various others that can be transmitted by parasites, insects and other animals. This applies especially to Latin America, Amazonia, Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, Middle East, and islands in the western and southern Pacific, where in the past only traveling missionaries, soldiers, and adventurers. Although tropical areas are the most attractive tourist destination, there is no place on earth which would not wish to go on vacation. However, according to local geography and epidemiology, health risks vary for travelers on trips to different ends. Given that a well organized preventive medicine is a prerequisite for reducing risks, the main goal of the existence and development of tropical and travel medicine, in fact, be warned the frequent problems and their more efficient solution to preserve the health of passengers, and infections and diseases to prevent or to cure time.
First, you need to know that the treatment before, during and after the trip there are a whole set of rules and guidelines, those home health authorities like the Ministry of Health and the Croatian Institute for Public Health, to the international regulations of the World Health Organization, national centers for disease control (as the American center for prevention and disease control-CDC). And in our country, which is an attractive tourist destination, such regulations are in place for more than 50 years, so refreshed and updated annually with new regulations to protect the health of passengers.
What should every traveler know?
There are many factors that determine the risk of some dangers of travel, including infections, disease, and injury (trauma). You should be informed before the trip because ignorance is often the main cause of unintentional exposure to infectious diseases and other traumatic events during the trip and vacation.
The goal is clear, unpredictable and unwanted diseases and conditions, from relatively innocuous “jet leg”, sore ears, dehydration during the journey axis plane and diseases of movement common in a boat trip up to altitude diseases climbers, exhaustion due to heat, blisters, and severe, life-threatening epidemics (eg Ebola, SARS, HIV, etc.) should be prevented to the smallest extent possible to reduce their emergence and spread.
It applies to various types of diarrhea (viral diarrhea, cholera, amoebiasis, typhoid, etc.) and disease-causing bites of infected mosquitoes or stings and bite of other insects and animals (e.g. malaria, dengue fever, viral hepatitis A, B, C, D, E and other virus infection of West Nile, yellow fever, rabies). It is necessary for a way that will fit to protect yourself from the consequences of injuries (vaccine against tetanus), strong sun (wear suitable protective clothing and use creams with high factor sunscreen), diseases of diving, etc…
Depending on the destination, every prospective traveler needs a few months before the trip to the epidemiological situation, the necessary vaccinations and other mandatory and useful preventive measures that apply in the country where you are traveling. Despite several websites that abound with reliable and updated data, the best source of information is the general physicians, epidemiologists, and pharmacists. When it comes to the institutions best answer you get if you go in the reference center for travel and tropical medicine at the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Croatia, which under that name existed for eleven years at the Clinic for Infectious Diseases “Dr. Fran Mihaljevic” in Zagreb and under other names has a tradition of over 100 years. Particular attention should be paid to pregnant women, young children and the elderly, and other persons since they are more sensitive to mild environmental conditions. The best advice on how best to care for them to get from their doctors or at the Center for travel and tropical medicine.
It is useful to visit the center at least six weeks ahead of time. With reliable information on the health situation in the country of destination, and in compliance with the regulations on measures for prevention that are important for the selected location, health officials o Center will advise which vaccines should receive, if you need any medicines and when to drink, but that should e AGI take with you.
Preventive measures exist for almost all health hazards that can meet on the road. The risks are different depending on what country, city or village traveling, in which season, how long the journey and where you’re located. All these risks should be added that the health outcome of your trip largely depends on what kind of health you have if you have received a mandatory or proposed vaccine and on time if you already use some drugs, are you suffering from a chronic disease or are pregnant. This would depend on a series of preventive measures that should be taken before you go on the road.
With children and pregnant women only in certain safe health countries
Riskiest trips for health are those of developing countries, but you are with far less risk if you’re traveling in Western Europe, Canada, USA, New Zealand, Australia or Japan. The risk is less if you travel in urban tourist destinations, with a travel arrangement than if you elect to travel with a backpack on you in some exotic rural area on the other side of the world.
Today there are numerous vaccines to protect persons traveling in hazardous areas. Among them particularly useful vaccines against hepatitis A and B, diphtheria, tetanus, measles and smallpox, polio, typhoid, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, meningococcal meningitis, and rabies. Some of them will have only to update (to be vaccinated before the trip), and some will have to go through the full vaccination. Additional doses of vaccination against tetanus and diphtheria are recommended every ten years. You may be required to have a certain vaccine against measles and poliomyelitis. Inform yourself about the time the family doctor and epidemiologist.
There are numerous drugs that should ever drink before and during the trip and after returning from the road (eg antimalarials) or in the case of diarrhea when traveling for which no vaccine and common if you’re traveling in the Near and Far East, Latin America and the like. It is useful to know that some drugs have serious side effects, which should also be prepared, not indifferent to us whether you are taking other medicines to drink for some chronic and other diseases.
All of this has only one goal and that is the journey so you may have a fond memory. But to be so, your personal responsibility is crucial. Therefore, take care of yourself and the health of their companions, prepare the cultural and climatic challenges and diversity of time make all necessary preventive measures, enjoy the trip and return home happy and healthy.
Ten tips that are a must to remember
1. Wash hands thoroughly, for at least 10 seconds and rinse them well. Wash required before contact with food, after performing necessary, after playing with animals, disposal of garbage, changing diapers, touching the wallet, coughing, sneezing, and nose blowing. Most of diarrhea, vomiting, colds and other infectious diseases can be prevented with a little soap and water.
2. To avoid diarrhea while traveling, eat only well-cooked food, drink the original packaging, avoid salads, fresh meat, fresh fruit and vegetables, tap water, ice cubes in drinks and dairy products.
3.All places where mosquitoes wear socks, head covering, long sleeves and trousers, sleep with a mosquito net. Cobwebs, bed, and clothes you can put on insecticide. In this w, y you can prevent diseases such as malaria, dengue fever and the like.
4.Bring purification tablets, portable water filters in case of lack of water bottle. In countries with an uncertain health-related quality of tap water for drinking, washing teeth and wash only using bottled water.
5. For protection from sun and UV rays, wear sunglasses and his head covered with a mandatory application of the cream with a high SPF sun.
6.The temporary consult a physician on measures of prevention if you are at risk of altitude or motion sickness. Bring with you soft drink and crackers to calm the stomach, and good will come and antihistamine. During driving, avoid food, alcohol, caffeine and cigarettes.
7. If you are suffering from any chronic illness, be sure to take drugs that would otherwise use. On each box write the name and history of the disease (depending on the country of destination, it would be good to be in a foreign language, English, German, French, Spanish).
8.It would be good before you travel to visit the dentist for a sudden pain did you ruin her holiday and to lead you to risk of looking for a dentist in an exotic country. Cleverly is best to take your antifungal and anti-bacterial cream, definitions, drug allergy, diarrhea, and poisoning, as well as some antibiotics in case of severe diarrhea. For best advice is to ask your family doctor. Also it would be good to take the analgesic, laxative, plasters, bandages, compresses, scissors, thermometer, tweezers, bottle with physiological fluid, nasal drops, wet wipes and copies of prescriptions of drugs that otherwise every day use you suffering from a chronic disease. All drugs should be packaged in leak-proof bottles.
9.Before you have to collect all necessary information about health and safety conditions in the country of destination. It is good to have the list of names, addresses and telephone numbers of hospitals and doctors recommended the destination.
10. Why during the flight by plane should limit consumption of alcohol and caffeine, and drink water and fruit juices? That way you avoid dehydration, which is especially important for heart patients, pregnant women and young children. If you are traveling long it is recommended every one hour to walk through the cabin to reduce the risk of blood clots (thrombophlebitis). Recommended flooded and comfortable shoes, and wearing compression stockings in case of varicose veins.